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I am very confused browsing literature because I can not find a clear statement about the ploidy of N. benthamiana.
N. tabacum is clearly an allotetraploid, and tetraploid (2n = 4x = 48), with 4 copies of n=12. Genome size over 4.5 Gb, however,
N benthamiana it is reported to be an "ancient" allotetraploid, but currently it is n=19, and 38 total number of chromosomes, so it seems that from the ancient allotetraploid (48 chromosomes), genome fractionation has occurred and 38 remains, and that currently the genome is "diploid" (2n = 2x = 38). Is this correct?. Is N benthamiana diploid?.
Thank you very much.
Best regards,
I would like to access the potato annotation file in iTAG nomenclature with their respective TAIR nomenclature codes equivalent to each gene. Is that possible? I can not find the annotation file that includes that information. I need to match the nomenclature accepted in DAVID (The Database for Annotation).

Example in PGSC annotation available in Phytozome

PGSC0003DMG400000001 = AT1G12600.1
Dear Sir/Madam
I need all of tomato reference and integrated maps such as "Integrated map: Yellow Stuffer X LA1589 and Sun1642 X LA1589".
But when I choose the map, I see "Server error" message.
Please let me know how can I get these maps.
Dear Sol genomics network,

Shin-Han Shiu, Marja Timmermans, and I are organizing this summer's Cold Spring Harbor "Frontiers and Techniques in Plant Sciences" (June 27 - July 17).

The course provides foundational work in plant sciences as well as practical laboratory experience in techniques like RNA-seq, proteomics, mapping-by-sequencing, genome editing, and imaging. In recent years the course has stressed the quantitative nature of plant biology and students will be introduced to computational techniques required for analyzing large datasets.

As you may know, this course has been going strong for >30 years and has been taken by many successful plant scientists. I encourage you to let students, postdocs and faculty colleagues know about the course, which will be taught be a fantastic group of investigators

CSH can provide limited financial support for US students to cover their tuition room and board through an NSF grant and other sources of funding. Thus, I strongly encourage you to consider sending your new students and/or post-docs to the course, which has had a very strong positive impact on the trajectory of participants.


Thank you,

Mark Johnson
Brown University
Before applying for debt relief order people must have to pay around 90 euros. Some are accepting installments also if you initially paid some amount of money. If in case your account is turned down then you will not get any amount back. For more please click the URL
I am looking for a new laptop for my studies as well as gaming. So, will need a powerful laptop as well as a bit portable one as will need to carry it for my studies. I am more interested in a windows laptop ( And, most accurately, an asus gaming laptop ( Because, asus gaming laptops are popular ones and comes with lots of options. I can find a portable one also. So, any suggestions for my requirements would be helpful. Thanks.
[B]Chơi 1 dãy số suốt 20 năm, cuối cùng cũng trúng giải[/B]

[B]Theo thông tin trực tiếp từ trò chơi kqxs miền bắc, người chơi đã quyết tâm chơi 1 dãy số suốt 20 năm trời và cuối cùng cũng được đền đáp bằng giải thưởng 7 triệu đô la. Đây được coi là giải thưởng lớn để đền đáp tính kiên trì của người chơi, vậy chẳng lý do gì không theo dõi câu chuyện này qua bài viết sau.[/B]

[B]Người chiến thắng xổ số đó là ai?[/B]

Sau khi chơi cùng một dãy số xổ số trong suốt 20 năm trời của mình thì Christos Rados - là cư dân của Toronto đã cho biết rằng mình đã may mắn trở thành chủ nhân của giải thưởng độc đắc triệu đô la.

Ngay khi nhìn thấy bản in các con số trúng thưởng xs miền bắc hôm nay 4 lần thì ông ấy đã chuyển tiếp vào tới để có thể tới trụ sở xổ số nhận được giải độc đắc trị giá 7 triệu đô la từ kỳ quay vừa qua cho mình. Được biết, ông đã lựa chọn thanh toán tiền thưởng theo hình thức nhận 1 lần rồi ra về.

Sử dụng phần mềm quay thử kết quả xổ số miễn phí với tỷ lệ trúng cao, thống kê, dự đoán, kết quả mở thưởng,....hữu ích nhất trên trang [B][URL=][B]Xem kết quả xổ số miền Bắc[/B][/URL][/B][IMG][/IMG] hàng ngày bạn nhé.
I recently heard about equity release from, an investment policy about which I became interested. I learned that it will be helpful at retirement time and it is beneficial too, but I couldn't understand whether it will be good or not. What should I do?
Started by:
riiupw afrass
2020-03-26 05:53:43
Want to know some facts about Minecraft that you probably didn't know? Of course you do!
Do you want to know some fun facts about Minecraft that you probably didn't know? Of course you do!

Find out how to tell the health of a wolf by their tail and what a Creeper's worst nightmare is. Uncover the mystery of the Enderman language and discover plans of an epic sky dimension!

Have you ever wondered who's behind the voice of the Ghasts or imagined how big a Minecraft block would be in real life?

Why not try some of these out for yourself next time you play Minecraft!

1. Minecraft was almost called "Cave Game"

2. There was originally plans for an epic Sky Dimension!
It eventually became The End though, so the idea wasn't scrapped completely

Square Sky
3. You can tell a wolf's health by their tail
Tails up = a healthy pup! Tails down = a low health hound!

Minecraft dogs
Media by Mojang via Giphy 3rd party content, see our FAQ
4. The Endermen language is just English played backwards
Or sometimes played forwards but in a very low pitch

Enderman just wants to be friends
Image by Minecraft
5. The Ghasts are voiced by a cat!

Minecraft Ghast is a cat
6. Creepers are afraid of ocelots
A Creeper's worst nightmare is a lot of ocelots!

A Creeper scared of an ocelot
Image by Minecraft
7. 1 block = 1 metre cubed
Which means the chickens in Minecraft are 3ft! A 3ft chicken? That ridicul-...oh!
Started by:
riiupw afrass
2020-03-21 14:03:41
What You'll Learn in This Article
Results of studies examining addictive potential of CBD
Hemp-derived CBD vs marijuana-derived CBD
CBD and THC, the entourage effect
CBD's potential in curbing addiction to other substances
CBD and prescription drug interactions
There's a growing amount of research pointing out the benefits of CBD. Studies have shown that CBD provides anti-inflammatory and seizure-suppressant properties, as well as the ability to reduce social anxiety.

Outside the United States, countries across the globe have started allowing cannabidiol (CBD) to be used legally inside their borders. In Canada, following the passage of The Cannabis Act, which legalized adult-use cannabis, both hemp-derived and marijuana-derived CBD are available in all provinces. The European Union (EU) has also established regulatory guidelines for hemp-derived CBD oil, allowing the cultivation of hemp as long as the THC content does not exceed 0.2%. A number of South American countries have also loosened restrictions against CBD oil and medical marijuana in general. Both Mexico and Brazil currently allow CBD products to be imported for certain medical conditions, while other countries, such as Chile, have already established full-scale medical marijuana programs.

Trying to figure out how to make money with a blog? I mean, as fun as starting a blog is, I don’t think there are very many people who would mind earning at least a little side income from their blog!

But how do you actually go about monetizing your blog? Do you just throw up a bunch of popup ads and call it a day? Well…you can. But if you go with that approach – you’re leaving a ton of less intrusive monetization options on the table.

In this post, I’m going to go over a whole heap of ideas for how to make money with a blog. I’ll cover everything from the most popular methods (that you might already be familiar with) down to some niche methods that might not have considered already.

The best part is you can use multiple monetization ideas at the same time to create a truly diversified income stream from your blog.

Enough chatting – let’s get to the money-making ideas.

17 ways to make money from your #blog - #monetization
How to make money blogging in 2020
Before I jump into the ideas, let me just give you a quick rundown of how I’m going to be ordering them. I’ll start with the most popular monetization methods and slowly get more narrow as the list goes on. So if you’re already familiar with the basics of how to make money with a blog, you might be able to skip the first few suggestions. Otherwise, start at the beginning!

1. Promote products via affiliate marketing
Let’s start with one of the biggest money makers for bloggers…that regular people often aren’t familiar with:

Affiliate marketing.

With affiliate marketing, you get paid for linking or otherwise recommending products or services if someone purchases a product as a result of clicking from your site. When someone buys after visiting from your site, you’ll get either a percentage or flat-rate commission.

For example, you could write a product review blog post and get paid if someone buys as a result of your review. An example of this in action is our SiteGround review. If someone signs up to SiteGround from our review, we earn a small commission. Or, you can always curate or mention multiple products at a time.

The important thing here is that the customer still gets the same price, no matter if they buy something based on an affiliate’s recommendation or directly from the vendor.

So how can you find these affiliate opportunities?

One way is to look in companies’ website footers for an Affiliates link. A good percentage of businesses have such links and you can find out about their affiliate program.

Another way is to sign up to an affiliate network (a collection of affiliate programs). Some good networks are:

Commission Junction
Lastly, if you’re into WordPress, there are two more options that we can recommend:

Our own affiliate program here at ThemeIsle. Check the details here.
A list of the top WordPress-related affiliate programs in the market.
2. Use Google AdSense ads
I’m giving Google AdSense its own category because it’s one of the most popular and easiest ways to start monetizing your blog. I’m guessing you’re familiar with what AdSense ads look like. If not, here’s a quick example:

To get such ads on your site, all you need to do is sign up for AdSense and add the ad code to your site.

Then, Google will serve up ads that are relevant to your content and your visitors. And you’ll get paid if someone clicks on your ad (known as cost per click) or even if someone just views your ad (known as cost per impression).

Started by:
riiupw afrass
2020-03-18 11:22:13
Almost every business in the United States that has employees has to handle the problem of workers' compensation. Most states (with a few important exceptions) essentially require employers to purchase an insurance policy to handle their statutory obligations to workers who are injured or made ill due to a workplace exposure. Whether your business is small or large, handling the expense and effort of meeting those statutory obligations is an ever-present challenge.

Workers' compensation requirements in the United States began early in the 20th century, back in 1911. Before then, workers who'd been injured or made ill on the job had to take legal action against their employers, resulting in a system that simultaneously made it difficult for workers to obtain compensation for such injuries and yet exposed employers to potentially devastating financial penalties under the tort system.

But beginning in 1911, an historic compromise solution was devised by the various states. Wisconsin was the first, but other states quickly followed, enacting a "no fault" system intended to make sure workers received fair and prompt medical treatment and financial compensation for workplace injuries and illness. This compromise system also established limits on the obligations of employers for these workplace exposures, so that the costs could be made more predictable and affordable.

Today, modern workers' comp laws provide fairly comprehensive and specific benefits to workers who suffer workplace injury or illness. Benefits include medical expenses, death benefits, lost wages, and vocational rehabilitation. Failure to carry workers' compensation insurance or otherwise meet a state's regulations in this regard can leave an employer exposed not only to paying these benefits out of pocket, but also to paying penalties levied by the states.
Started by:
Lukas Mueller
2020-02-29 20:22:01
This topic contains release notes for new SGN data releases.
Started by:
Lukas Mueller
2020-02-08 04:39:33
This topic contains release notes for new SGN website features.
Started by:
César Benavidez
2020-01-17 13:43:45
Dear friends, I am about to begin an investigation of lycopene content in tomato species, as well as identification of microsatellites to identify the gene or genes responsible for the character under study, so I ask if I could help with information on the research topic . Thank you very much
Started by:
john binns
2019-12-26 02:50:01
This topic is for members of the SOL community from around the world to publish job openings. If interested, please reply directly to the poster. Job postings submitters please note that the postings will be removed by default 8 months after posting.
Started by:
Peng Wang
2019-10-18 16:15:25
Here we report a serious problem with tobacco gene models. We tried to map the gene models of Nitociana tabacum (TN90), which you provide in your ftp, to the TN90 genome assembly sequences. Unfortunately, a lot of gene models could not be mapped. Of the 122388 gene models you provided in the gene model file,only 53714 could be mapped to the genome assembly. We do not know what method you used to identify gene models. Could you check all the datasets of the three tobacco varieties(TN90, K326 and Bathma)? Thank you.
Started by:
Emilio Ortiz
2019-10-02 05:21:32

Is there any way to download the 2860 COSII sequences? Please let me know.

Thank you,
Is it safe to directly map the gene identifiers (Solyc00g005000.2) using the primary id (Solyc00g005000)?
Started by:
Sridhar Gutam
2019-10-02 05:12:34
Dear All,

I would like to work on phenotyping tomato and brinjal (egg plant) for abiotic stress tolerance traits. For that I would like to know what are the materials and methods needed.

Why I am asking is that if any one in the community had developed a set of protocols for low cost phenotyoing, i would like to use it.

Please connect me with people who are working on phenotyping tomato.

I would like to know whether Triticum aestivum database is updated and is there any reference where I researchers have designed construct for VIGS in wheat
2019-05-19 11:29:22
Hi dears,
Is there any possibility that someone can share the cDNA library of benthamiana? Please let me know, if it is possible. Thanks.
Started by:
Erwin Aragon
2019-03-11 09:06:57
Dears friends: I want to Know if Are there microsatellite or other molecular marker that can be used for identify differents species in tomato??? i mean between sculentum and
Started by:
Naama Menda
2018-09-28 12:20:26
This topic discusses issues in developing controlled-vocabularies for describing Solanaceae phenotypes and traits.
Most should be covered by the 'Solanaceae Phenotype Ontology' (SPO)
(see SGN->Tools->Ontology browser) which is growing by demand of its users community.
Terms which exist in other ontologies (PO, PATO, etc) are mapped to SPO terms.
In some cases it will be advised to use other vocabularies, instead of providing new SPO terms.
Hi, I would like to know if there is a straightforward way to translate the one nomenclature to the other.
Both refer to genes/loci/protein, right... but if I have to compare to see coincidences from one list in one format and one list in the other (having hundreds of proteins/genes in each list), I can die doing searches and endless alignments, and still not accomplishing the job...
Please help.
Thank you very much.
Started by:
Lukas Mueller
2011-12-14 10:49:32
In the next few years, hundreds of Solanaceae will be sequenced using next generation sequencing methods. If you intend to sequence a Solanaceae, please provide information on the species to avoid duplicate sequencing of accessions on the SGN SOL-100 page This topic is for the discussion of SOL-100 related questions.
This topics is for the researchers of the SOL community around the world who need some specific materials for their experiments and express some request to those who could provide them with the expected materials or resources.